# Spatial Data and GIS - Vector Data

## Activity: Plot Spatial Raster Data in Python

Practice your skills creating maps of raster and vector data using open source Python.

last updated: 21 Jan 2022

## Activity: Plot Time Series Data Using Pandas in Open Source Python

Practice your skills plotting time series data stored in Pandas Data Frames in Python.

last updated: 15 Sep 2020

## File Formats Exercise

Complete these exercises to practice the skills you learned in the file formats chapters.

last updated: 11 Sep 2020

## Introduction to Spatial Vector Data File Formats in Open Source Python

Vector data is one of the two most common spatial data types. Learn to work with vector data for earth data science.

last updated: 23 Sep 2020

## Spatial Data Formats for Earth Data Science

Two of the major spatial data formats used in earth data science are vector and raster data. Learn about these two common spatial data formats for earth data science workflows in this chapter.

last updated: 23 Sep 2020

## Customize your Maps in Python using Matplotlib: GIS in Python

When making maps, you often want to create legends, customize colors, adjust zoom levels, or even make interactive maps. Learn how to customize maps created using vector data in Python with matplotlib, geopandas, and folium.

last updated: 21 Jul 2020

## Handle missing spatial attribute data: GIS in Python

Sometimes vector data are missing attribute data, and it can be helpful to clean up your data. Learn how to handle missing attribute data in Python using GeoPandas.

last updated: 11 Sep 2020

## How to Join Attributes From One Shapefile to Another in Open Source Python Using Geopandas: GIS in Python

A spatial join is when you assign attributes from one shapefile to another based upon its spatial location. Learn how to perform spatial joins in Python.

last updated: 11 Sep 2020

## How to Dissolve Polygons Using Geopandas: GIS in Python

When you dissolve polygons, you remove the interior boundaries of a set of polygons with the same attribute value and create one new merged or combined polygon for each attribute value. Learn how to dissolve polygons in Python using GeoPandas.

last updated: 28 Jan 2021

## Clip a spatial vector layer in Python using Shapely & GeoPandas: GIS in Python

Sometimes you may want to spatially clip a vector data layer to a specified boundary for easier plotting and analysis of smaller spatial areas. Learn how to clip a vector data layer in Python using GeoPandas and Shapely.

last updated: 28 Jan 2021

## GIS in Python: Reproject Vector Data.

Often when spatial data do not line up properly on a plot, it is because they are in different coordinate reference systems (CRS). Learn how to reproject a vector dataset to a different CRS in Python using the to_crs() function from GeoPandas.

last updated: 11 Sep 2020

## GIS in Python: Reproject Vector Data.

Often when spatial data do not line up properly on a plot, it is because they are in different coordinate reference systems (CRS). Learn how to reproject a vector dataset to a different CRS in Python using the to_crs() function from GeoPandas.

last updated: 11 Sep 2020

## Create interactive leaflet maps using folium in Jupyter Notebook: GIS in Python

Interactive maps allow you to easily explore data. Learn how to create interative leaflet maps embedded in a Jupyter Notebook using Python and folium.

last updated: 21 Jan 2022

## Customize Map Extents in Python: GIS in Python

When making maps, sometimes you want to zoom in to a specific area in your map. Learn how to adjust the x and y limits of your matplotlib and geopandas map to change the spatial extent that is displayed.

last updated: 21 Jan 2022

## Customize Map Legends and Colors in Python using Matplotlib: GIS in Python

When making maps, you often want to add legends and customize the map colors. Learn how to customize legends and colors in matplotlib maps created using vector data in Python.

last updated: 21 Jul 2020

## Layer a raster dataset over a hillshade in Python to create a beautiful basemap that represents topography.

A hillshade is a representation of the earth's surface as it would look with shade and shadows from the sun. Learn how to overlay raster data on top of a hillshade in Python.

last updated: 21 Jan 2022

## Plot Spatial Raster Data in Python.

When plotting rasters, you often want to overlay two rasters, add a legend, or make the raster interactive. Learn how to make a map of raster data that has these attributes using Python.

last updated: 21 Jul 2020

## GIS in Python: Introduction to Vector Format Spatial Data - Points, Lines and Polygons

Vector data are composed of discrete geometric locations (x, y values) known as vertices that define the shape of the spatial object. Learn more about the structure of vector data and how to open vector data stored in shapefile format in Python.

last updated: 11 Sep 2020

## Make Interactive Maps with Leaflet R - GIS in R

In this lesson you learn the steps to create a map in R using ggplot.

last updated: 03 Sep 2019

## Maps in R: R Maps Tutorial Using Ggplot

You can use R as a GIS. Learn how to create a map in R using ggplot in this R maps tutorial.

last updated: 03 Sep 2019

## Import and Summarize Tree Height Data and Compare it to Lidar Derived Height in R

It is important to compare differences between tree height measurements made by humans on the ground to those estimated using lidar remote sensing data. Learn how to perform this analysis and calculate error or uncertainty in R.

last updated: 03 Sep 2019

## Extract Raster Values Using Vector Boundaries in R

This lesson reviews how to extract pixels from a raster dataset using a vector boundary. You can use the extracted pixels to calculate mean and max tree height for a study area (in this case a field site where tree heights were measured on the ground. Finally you will compare tree heights derived from lidar data compared to tree height measured by humans on the ground.

last updated: 03 Sep 2019

## GIS in R: Plot Spatial Data and Create Custom Legends in R

In this lesson you break down the steps required to create a custom legend for spatial data in R. You learn about creating unique symbols per category, customizing colors and placing your legend outside of the plot using the xpd argument combined with x,y placement and margin settings.

last updated: 30 Mar 2020

## GIS in R: How to Reproject Vector Data in Different Coordinate Reference Systems (crs) in R

In this lesson you learn how to reproject a vector dataset using the spTransform() function in R.

last updated: 03 Sep 2019

## GIS in R: Understand EPSG, WKT and other CRS definition styles

This lesson discusses ways that coordinate reference system data are stored including proj4, well known text (wkt) and EPSG codes.

last updated: 13 Mar 2020

## GIS With R: Projected vs Geographic Coordinate Reference Systems

Geographic coordinate reference systems are often used to make maps of the world. Projected coordinate reference systems are use to optimize spatial analysis for a region. Learn about WGS84 and UTM Coordinate Reference Systems as used in R.

last updated: 13 Mar 2020

## Coordinate Reference System and Spatial Projection

Coordinate reference systems are used to convert locations on the earth which is round, to a two dimensional (flat) map. Learn about the differences between coordinate reference systems.

last updated: 03 Sep 2019

## GIS in R: shp, shx and dbf + prj - The Files That Make up a Shapefile

This lesson reviews the core files that are required to use a shapefile including: shp, shx and dbf. It also covers the .prj format which is used to define the coordinate reference system (CRS) of the data.

last updated: 03 Sep 2019

## GIS in R: Intro to Vector Format Spatial Data - Points, Lines and Polygons

This lesson introduces what vector data are and how to open vector data stored in shapefile format in R.

last updated: 30 Mar 2020

## Layer a Raster Dataset Over a Hillshade Using R Baseplot to Create a Beautiful Basemap That Represents Topography

This lesson covers how to overlay raster data on a hillshade in R using baseplot and layer opacity arguments.

last updated: 03 Sep 2019