# Lesson 3. Install Packages in Python

## Learning Objectives

• Create a conda environment.
• Install a Python package in the terminal using conda.

## Create Conda Environments

Previously in this chapter, you learned about conda environments and the difference between conda and pip. On this page, you will learn how to create and work with conda environments. You will also learn how to install Python packages using the conda-forge channel.

In order to create a conda environment, you first need to install an conda distribution. To do this, you have two main options: Anaconda and Miniconda.

Anaconda ships with a suite of libraries and software pre-installed, which makes it quite large (~3Gb). All of the installed packages can also lead to dependency conflicts as you install new packages.

Miniconda, on the other hand, is a streamlined conda distribution. It only contains critical packages and software such as the conda package manager and a basic Python environment.

Miniconda is predominately designed for users who know what packages they need and do not want or need the extra installations. For this textbook, we suggest that you use the Miniconda installation.

Data Tip: In this lesson on installing conda, you will learn about the advantages of Miniconda vs Anaconda. You will also learn how to install Miniconda.

Once you have conda installed on your machine, you can create your first conda environment:

$conda create -n myenv  With that command, you create a basic conda environment that relies on the base Miniconda installation of packages. If you want to ensure that you are running Python 3.7, you could instead do this: $ conda create -n myenv Python=3.7


### Build Conda Environment From YAML File

You can also build a conda environment from a .yml file. A .yml file is a text file that contains a list of dependencies and which channels you prioritize downloading them on.

You can use the earth-analytics-python yaml file called environment.yml to perform the setup step below.

This will install all of the packages that you will need to complete the exercises in both this textbook and the follow-up intermediate textbook that dives more deeply into spatial and remote sensing data.

$conda env create -f environment.yml  ## Use Conda Environments ### List Available Conda Environments Up to this point, you have constructed one or multiple conda environments. In order to make use of a conda environment, it must be activated by name. Conda doesn’t expect you to remember every environment name you create over time, so there is a built-in command to list all that are available: $ conda env list


This will list out the names and the locations of each of your available environments like such:

$base * /Users/test/miniconda3$ myenv                     /Users/test/anaconda3/envs/myenv
$otherenv /Users/test/anaconda3/envs/otherenv  Note that the environment with the asterisk (*) next to it is the current active environment. Until you activate a specific environment, the default active environment is the base environment installed with Miniconda. ### Activate an Environment for Use Now that you have the name of the env that you would like to use, you can activate it using: $ conda activate myenv


After activating your environment, run conda env list again, and notice that the asterisk has moved to myenv signifying that this environment is currently active.

$base /Users/test/miniconda3$ myenv                  *   /Users/test/anaconda3/envs/myenv
$otherenv /Users/test/anaconda3/envs/otherenv  Once you have activated a conda environment, all installations that you run will be installed specifically to this environment. This allow you to have ultimate control when installing and managing dependencies for each project. ## Update Conda Environments Using a YAML File Once you have created a conda environment, you can update it anytime by first activating the environment and then running the conda env update command. The example below updates the earth-analytics-python environment using the environment.yml file. In this example, the command conda env update is run in the same directory that contains the environment.yml file. $ conda activate earth-analytics-python
$conda env update -f environment.yml  Running this command will update your current earth-analytics-python environment to include the most current versions of the packages listed in that environment file. Note that if you add a new package to that environment.yml file, it will also add that package to the earth-analytics-python environment when you run an update using that file. ### Adding a Package to your YAML File If you wish to add a new package to your environment file, you can do so by updating the environment.yml file. Below you see the contents of an example .yml file. The first example does not have earthpy in the list of dependencies. name: earth-analytics-python channels: - conda-forge - defaults dependencies: - python=3.7 - matplotlib # Core scientific python - numpy  Your updated version of the environment.yml may look as follows with the list of dependencies ending with a new package earthpy: name: earth-analytics-python channels: - conda-forge - defaults dependencies: - python=3.7 - matplotlib # Core scientific python - numpy - earthpy  If you ran conda env update -f environment.yml using the second file, it would both update the packages in the environment that already existed and add a new one (earthpy) to the environment. It is ideal to use a .yml file to create environments as it provides you and anyone else who may want to reproduce your workflow with a record of the exact setup of your environment. You can think of this .yml file as a recipe for your Python environment. It is much easier to send someone a single page of a recipe book than to try to type out all of the instructions by hand. This supports open reproducible science. However, in a pinch, you may need to install a single package into your environment. You will learn how to do this next. ## Install A Python Package Into an Environment (Without a YAML File) Imagine that you created and activated a brand new environment using the command below: $ conda create -n myenv
$conda activate myenv  You can install a package manually into this environment using conda install. Try the following: Install earthpy into that environment using the conda-forge channel: (myenv)$ conda install -c conda-forge earthpy


Here, the -c means --channel and tells conda to use the conda-forge channel when installing earthpy.

In general it is bad practice to mix channels, and conda-forge currently has the most well maintained and broad range of available libraries. Conda-forge is also currently the most consistent way to install GDAL which you will need for all of the spatial Python packages.

## List Installed Dependencies Within an Environment

At this point you have a new environment with earthpy installed. To see this installation and what other dependencies were installed, you can use conda list.

(myenv) $conda list  The results of conda list will show you: 1. What packages are installed 2. What version of each package is installed 3. Which channel you installed each package from (pip, conda, conda-forge) (earth-analytics-python)~ username$ conda list
# packages in environment at //anaconda/envs/earth-analytics-python:
#
affine                    2.1.0                      py_1    conda-forge
alembic                   0.9.7                     <pip>
altair                    1.2.1                      py_0    conda-forge
appnope                   0.1.0                    py36_0    conda-forge
asn1crypto                0.22.0                   py36_0    conda-forge
attrs                     17.4.0                     py_0    conda-forge
backports                 1.0                      py36_1    conda-forge
backports.functools_lru_cache 1.4                      py36_1    conda-forge
blas                      1.1                    openblas    conda-forge
bleach                    2.0.0                    py36_0    conda-forge
boost                     1.65.1                   py36_0    conda-forge



As conda list will tell you which channel was used to download each package, it is useful to review the list, when trying to debug issues that could be potentially related to dependency issues. Often times, an update to a single dependency or a channel mixing issue can break an entire project.

Conda list is also a great way to create a list to share your environment specs with other users online.

IMPORTANT: note that when you run conda list, it is listing packages installed in the current active environment.

### Summary of Installing Packages In Python Environments

You can add as many packages as you want to a Python environment. However, it is important to keep track of which environment you are adding the package to.

If you add the earthpy package to your root or base conda environment for Python and then try to use earthpy in a different environment, it won’t work!

You will have to install it separately into the each environment to access it within.

To summarize what you have learned above, you need to complete the following steps to install a package:

1. Open a terminal, so you have access to the command line.
2. Activate the Python environment that you wish to add the package to.
3. Install the package that you want to add to that environment using either a .yml file or conda install.

Data Tip: You can also install a package into an environment without activating it by using conda install conda-forge --name myenv package-name